网格顶点法向的计算(基于面平均方法)

最近做矩阵权有理细分要用到顶点法向量,但是网格上顶点是没有办法直接计算法向的,只能借助于一些离散的方法去计算,在此不得不佩服一下维基。。确实是厉害,我的算法主要是借助于Vertex normal这个词条计算的,有些好东西还确实是得看英文的

在计算机图形的几何形状中,多面体的顶点法线是与顶点相关联的方向向量,用于替代表面的真实几何法线。 通常通过计算顶点有关面的法向取平均值再进行归一化,平均值可以通过相关面面积进行加权,也可以不加权。

由上面的表述就可以看得出有两种不同的计算方式,分别为加权和不加权

下面分别展示加权和不加权的MATLAB代码以及效果,MATLAB论坛上有Tolga Birdal的文章

function [normal,normalf] = compute_normal(vertex,face)

% compute_normal - compute the normal of a triangulation
%
%   [normal,normalf] = compute_normal(vertex,face);
%
%   normal(i,:) is the normal at vertex i.
%   normalf(j,:) is the normal at face j.
%
%   Copyright (c) 2004 Gabriel Peyr

[vertex,face] = check_face_vertex(vertex,face);

nface = size(face,2);
nvert = size(vertex,2);
normal = zeros(3, nvert);

% unit normals to the faces
normalf = crossp( vertex(:,face(2,:))-vertex(:,face(1,:)), ...
                  vertex(:,face(3,:))-vertex(:,face(1,:)) );
d = sqrt( sum(normalf.^2,1) ); %d(d<eps)=1;
normalf = normalf ./ repmat( d, 3,1 );

% unit normal to the vertex
normal = zeros(3,nvert);
for i=1:nface
    f = face(:,i);
    for j=1:3
        normal(:,f(j)) = normal(:,f(j)) + normalf(:,i);
    end
end
% normalize
d = sqrt( sum(normal.^2,1) ); %d(d<eps)=1;
normal = normal ./ repmat( d, 3,1 );

% enforce that the normal are outward
v = vertex - repmat(mean(vertex,1), 3,1);
s = sum( v.*normal, 2 );
if sum(s>0)<sum(s<0)
    % flip
    normal = -normal;
    normalf = -normalf;
end



%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function z = crossp(x,y)
% x and y are (m,3) dimensional
z = x;
z(1,:) = x(2,:).*y(3,:) - x(3,:).*y(2,:);
z(2,:) = x(3,:).*y(1,:) - x(1,:).*y(3,:);
z(3,:) = x(1,:).*y(2,:) - x(2,:).*y(1,:);
对比上面的代码,是先计算各个面的法向量,然后对其进行单位化,再相加

如果先相加再对其单位化

function [normal,normalf] = compute_normal_weight(vertex,face)

[vertex,face] = check_face_vertex(vertex,face);

nface = size(face,2);
nvert = size(vertex,2);
normal = zeros(3, nvert);

% unit normals to the faces
normalf = crossp( vertex(:,face(2,:))-vertex(:,face(1,:)), ...
                  vertex(:,face(3,:))-vertex(:,face(1,:)) );

% unit normal to the vertex
normal = zeros(3,nvert);
for i=1:nface
    f = face(:,i);
    for j=1:3
        normal(:,f(j)) = normal(:,f(j)) + normalf(:,i);
    end
end
% normalize
d = sqrt( sum(normal.^2,1) );% d(d<eps)=1;
normal = normal ./ repmat( d, 3,1 );

% enforce that the normal are outward
v = vertex - repmat(mean(vertex,1), 3,1);
s = sum( v.*normal, 2 );
if sum(s>0)<sum(s<0)
    % flip
    normal = -normal;
    normalf = -normalf;
end



%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function z = crossp(x,y)
% x and y are (m,3) dimensional
z = x;
z(1,:) = x(2,:).*y(3,:) - x(3,:).*y(2,:);
z(2,:) = x(3,:).*y(1,:) - x(1,:).*y(3,:);
z(3,:) = x(1,:).*y(2,:) - x(2,:).*y(1,:);
其实就是删了一句话,但是区别是很明显的

因为两个向量直接做叉乘本来就是带有计算面积的性质,所以不做单位化直接相加就相当于对于面积进行了加权


下面是测试代码,其中bunny_200.obj在我的资源里可以下载到

name = 'bunny_200.obj';
OBJ=readObj(name);
vertices=OBJ.v;
faces=OBJ.f.v;
face=faces';
vertex=vertices';
options.name = name; 
[normal] = compute_normal(vertices,faces); 
options.normal = normal; 
options1.name = name; 
[normal_weight] = compute_normal_weight(vertices,faces); 
options1.normal = normal_weight; 
vertices1=vertices;faces1=faces;
figure
subplot(1,2,1);
plot_mesh(vertices,faces,options); 
shading interp;  %axis tight;
subplot(1,2,2);
plot_mesh(vertices,faces,options1); 
shading interp;  %axis tight; 
显示效果如下

简单平均按照面积加权
个人偏向于第二种方法,因为在矩阵权细分的时候有优势,具体参加后面的博文^^

对了,plot_mesh.m文件也在toolbox graph

function h = plot_mesh(vertex,face,options)

% plot_mesh - plot a 3D mesh.
%
%   plot_mesh(vertex,face, options);
%
%   'options' is a structure that may contains:
%       - 'normal' : a (nvertx x 3) array specifying the normals at each vertex.
%       - 'edge_color' : a float specifying the color of the edges.
%       - 'face_color' : a float specifying the color of the faces.
%       - 'face_vertex_color' : a color per vertex or face.
%       - 'vertex'
%
%   See also: mesh_previewer.
%
%   Copyright (c) 2004 Gabriel Peyr?


if nargin<2
    error('Not enough arguments.');
end

options.null = 0;

name            = getoptions(options, 'name', '');
normal          = getoptions(options, 'normal', []);
face_color      = getoptions(options, 'face_color', .7);
edge_color      = getoptions(options, 'edge_color', 0);
normal_scaling  = getoptions(options, 'normal_scaling', .8);
sanity_check = getoptions(options, 'sanity_check', 1);

if size(vertex,1)==2
    % 2D triangulation
    % vertex = cat(1,vertex, zeros(1,size(vertex,2)));
    plot_graph(triangulation2adjacency(face),vertex);
    return;
end

% can flip to accept data in correct ordering
[vertex,face] = check_face_vertex(vertex,face);

if size(face,1)==4
    %%%% tet mesh %%%%

    % normal to the plane <x,w><=a
    w = getoptions(options, 'cutting_plane', [0.2 0 1]');
    w = w(:)/sqrt(sum(w.^2));
    t = sum(vertex.*repmat(w,[1 size(vertex,2)]));
    a = getoptions(options, 'cutting_offs', median(t(:)) );
    b = getoptions(options, 'cutting_interactive', 0);
    
    while true;

        % in/out
        I = ( t<=a );
        % trim
        e = sum(I(face));
        J = find(e==4);
        facetrim = face(:,J);
        K = find(e==0);
        K = face(:,K); K = unique(K(:));

        % convert to triangular mesh
        hold on;
        if not(isempty(facetrim))
            face1 = tet2tri(facetrim, vertex, 1);
            options.method = 'fast';
            face1 = perform_faces_reorientation(vertex,face1, options);
            h{1} = plot_mesh(vertex,face1);
        end
        view(3); camlight;
        shading faceted;
        h{2} = plot3(vertex(1,K), vertex(2,K), vertex(3,K), 'k.');
        hold off;
        
        if b==0
            break;
        end

        [x,y,b] = ginput(1);
        
        if b==1
            a = a+.03;
        elseif b==3
            a = a-.03;
        else
            break;
        end
    end
    return;    
end


vertex = vertex';
face = face';

if strcmp(name, 'bunny') || strcmp(name, 'pieta')
%    vertex = -vertex;
end
if strcmp(name, 'armadillo')
    vertex(:,3) = -vertex(:,3);
end

if sanity_check && (size(face,2)~=3 || (size(vertex,2)~=3 && size(vertex,2)~=2))
    error('face or vertex does not have correct format.');
end

if ~isfield(options, 'face_vertex_color') || isempty(options.face_vertex_color)
    options.face_vertex_color = zeros(size(vertex,1),1);
end
face_vertex_color = options.face_vertex_color;


if isempty(face_vertex_color)
    h = patch('vertices',vertex,'faces',face,'facecolor',[face_color face_color face_color],'edgecolor',[edge_color edge_color edge_color]);
else
    nverts = size(vertex,1);
    % vertex_color = rand(nverts,1);
    if size(face_vertex_color,1)==size(vertex,1)
        shading_type = 'interp';
    else
        shading_type = 'flat';
    end
    h = patch('vertices',vertex,'faces',face,'FaceVertexCData',face_vertex_color, 'FaceColor',shading_type);
end
colormap gray(256);
lighting phong;
% camlight infinite; 
camproj('perspective');
axis square; 
axis off;

if ~isempty(normal)
    % plot the normals
    n = size(vertex,1);
    subsample_normal = getoptions(options, 'subsample_normal', min(4000/n,1) );
    sel = randperm(n); sel = sel(1:floor(end*subsample_normal));    
    hold on;
    quiver3(vertex(sel,1),vertex(sel,2),vertex(sel,3),normal(1,sel)',normal(2,sel)',normal(3,sel)',normal_scaling);
    hold off;
end

view_param = getoptions(options, 'view_param', []);
if not(isempty(view_param))
    view(view_param(1),view_param(2));
end

axis tight;
axis equal;
shading interp;
camlight;

if strcmp(name, 'david50kf') || strcmp(name, 'hand')
    zoom(.85);
end
具体里面的我也没看,直接调用就好了。。

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